Research on Nonviolent Communication

Below are sources of information including research reports, academic communications and publications on Nonviolent Communication.

Journal Articles

Erika M. Manczak, Anita DeLongis, and Edith Chen (2015)
Does Empathy Have a Cost? Diverging Psychological and Physiological Effects Within Families. Health Psychology, Vol 35(3), Mar 2016, 211-218.
Objective: Parental empathy is associated with a host of beneficial psychosocial outcomes for children. However, less is known about the effects of being empathic for parents. The current study tested the hypothesis that, although parental empathy may be beneficial to children both psychologically and physiologically, it may take a physiological toll on parents.
Method: The current study examined psychological and physiological correlates of parental empathy in 247 parent–adolescent dyads. During a baseline laboratory visit, parents and adolescents provide blood samples from which markers of systemic inflammation, including interleukin 1-ra, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein, were assayed. Parents completed self-report questionnaires of empathy, well-being, and self-esteem, and also reported on their child’s emotion regulation. Following the laboratory visit, adolescents completed 2 weeks of daily diary reporting on their emotion regulation abilities.
Results: In adolescents, parental empathy was significantly associated with both better emotion regulation and with less systemic inflammation. For parents, being empathic was associated with greater self-esteem and purpose in life, but also with higher systemic inflammation.
Conclusions: These findings reinforce the importance of simultaneously considering both psychological and physical health-related effects of psychosocial traits and suggests that empathy may have diverging effects across providers and recipients of empathy.
Alejandra Suarez, Dug Y. Lee, Christopher Rowe, Alex Anthony Gomez, Elise Murowchick, Patricia L. Linn (2014)
Freedom Project Nonviolent Communication and Mindfulness Training in Prison
Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.
Marlow, Elizabeth, Nyamathi, Adeline, Grajeda, William T., Bailey, Newt, Weber, Amanda and Younger,  Jerry (2012)
Nonviolent Communication Training and Empathy in Male Parolees Journal Correctional Health Care January 2012 18: 8-19, first published on November 17, 2011
Cox, E. and Dannahy, P. (2005).
The value of openness in e-relationships: using Nonviolent Communication to guide online coaching and mentoring.”  International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring 3(1): 39-51.

Conference Papers

Connor, J. M. and Wentworth, R. (2012)
Training in Collaborative Communication in an Organizational Context: Assessment of Impact.” Psychologists for Social Responsibility 30th Anniversary Conference in Washington DC, July 12-14, 2012. Also available are: a 1-page summary (1 page) and a full report “Collaborative Communication Training: Assessment of Impact”  formatted in 3 parts: Section 1 (p. 1-46)Section 2 (p. 47-49); and Section 3 (p. 49-80).


Hooper, Lee (2015)
An exploratory study: Non-violent communication strategies for secondary teachers using a Quality Learning Circle approach
Masters in Education dissertation Thesis, University of Canterbury. My focus is one of exploring ways that teachers can support each other in forming positive interpersonal relationships with their students to manage challenging student behaviours and make the classroom environment more cohesive to learning and teaching.
Museux Anne-Claire, M. SW, Serge Dumont, PhD., SW, Emmanuelle Careau, PhD., Exp. Med. (2014)
Étude sur la contribution de la communication consciente à l’optimisation de la collaboration interprofessionnelle centrée sur la personne.  Mémoire de maîtrise en service social, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Comme peu d’écrits s’intéressent spécifiquement à la question de la communication en contexte de collaboration interprofessionnelle (CIP), cette étude vise à explorer les effets d’une formation en communication consciente ou communication non violente (CNV) sur les pratiques collaboratives de deux équipes d’intervenants du réseau de la santé et des services sociaux.The effects of a nonviolent communication training in interprofessional collaborative practice in the health system and social services, Master thesis in social work, Laval University, Québec, Canada. Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is widely considered as an effective and efficient way to provide health and social care. Nevertheless, little research has focused on the issue of communication in the context of IPC, which this study aims to rectify. This is done by exploring the effects of Nonviolent Communication training on the collaborative practices of two teams in the health system and social services. The research paper is written in French. This link provides an info-graphic in English. Compassion Word: Interconnecting Seed for a Changing World The effects of conscious communication in interprofessionnal collaboration in social care.
McCain, David R. (2014)
Stepping Back To Move Forward: How the Skills of Empathic Dialogue Surrort Interpersonal Communication By David R. McCain A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sustainable Communities Northern Arizona University December 2014.
Sears, Melanie S.(2013)
Nonviolent Communication: Application to Health Care. (Link will Download the zip file) A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in Transpersonal Psychology, International University of Professional Studies, Maui Hawaii, 2013.
Juncadella, Carme Mampel (2013)
What is the impact of the application of the Nonviolent communication model on the development of empathy? Overview of research and outcomes. MSc in Psychotherapy Studies School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield: 142
Shen, Sherry (Chen Yu) (2013)
Mindful practices for the health promotion and empowerment of institutionalized youth and young adults in Peru. Master Internship Report, Master of Public Health, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health (MEZCOPH), The University of Arizona Thesis.
Branscomb, Jane ( 2011)
A Collaborative Communication workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in furthering targeted skills, intentions, behaviors and outcomes. Based on Nonviolent Communicationsm (NVC), the workshop seeks to enhance wellbeing by fostering intra- and interpersonal relationships of compassion, connection, collaboration and caring. Evidence indicates that success could also help reduce the burden of depression, suicide, violence, and other concerns.
Young, Lissa (2011). PhD Thesis, Clinical Psychology, University of Massachusetts Boston
The Expression of Nonviolence in Communication and its Relation to Physical and Mental Health: Development and Validation of a Coding System for Measuring the Expression of Nonviolence in Communication between Intimate Partners in Conflict Situations: This pilot study was the second part of a program of research designed to address a dearth of literature on nonviolence in communication and the lack of a valid measure of the expression of nonviolence in communication. This study used qualitative responses to a single scenario portraying a conflict situation between intimate partners to develop a coding scheme to measure the expression of nonviolence in communication.
Jones, Suzanne (2009)
Traditional Education or Partnership Education: Which Educational Approach Might Best Prepare Students for the Future? MA Thesis, Communication, San Diego, California. USA. San Diego University: 203.
Little, Marion (2008)
Total Honesty/Total Heart: Fostering empathy development and conflict resolution skills. A violence prevention strategy. MA Thesis, Dispute Resolution, Victoria, B.C. Canada. University of Victoria: 286.
Nash, A.L. (2007)
Case Study of Tekoa Institute: Illustration of Nonviolent Communication Training’s Effect on Conflict Resolution. 
MS Sociology. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia: 40
Beck, S. R. (2005).
Developing Nonviolent Communication: An Integral Approach, MA Thesis, Dept. of Educational Psychology and Leadership Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: 105 pages.
Blake, S. M. (2002).
A Step Toward Violence Prevention: Non-Violent Communication as Part of a College Curriculum. (Will download pdf) MA Thesis, Department of Communication. Boca Raton, Florida, Florida Atlantic University: 122.


Zacapa, E. (informal report on work of) (2014)
Batterers’ intervention recidivism rates lowest known to date“. Mountain Democrat (Placerville, CA). 30 April 2014.
Burleson, Molly, Martin, Monique and Lewis, Rashunda(2012)
Assessing the Impact of Nonviolent Communication: An Outcome Evaluation (PDF, 1.5 MB) 
In 2009, Mark Feinknopf and Cynthia Moe of Sacred Space Inc, were yearning for data that would quantify the profound and transformative possibility that Nonviolent Communication consciousness can provide in peoples’ lives and in 2012 Faye Landey and Jeff Joslin joined the Atlanta EVAL Team. They collaborated with a student team from Emory University’s Rollins School of Public Health to begin building such data. That effort laid the groundwork for an actual science-based study.During early 2010 the four wrote a six-hour NVC basics course called Collaborative Communication. Eight Certified Trainers delivered this course to 108 participants. 2011’s efforts were focused on more qualitative-focused data collection in companionship with Emory students Rashunda Lewis, Monique Martin, and Molly Burleson. Responses were gathered from 80 participants via electronic survey and from 9 who gathered in a focus group.The results of this study verified that Nonviolent Communication can and does enhance the ability to Work together and live together with more vitality and harmony, handle conflict, and respond to others with more interest and understanding
Altmann, Tobias (2010)
Evaluation der Gewaltfreien Kommunikation in Quer- und Längsschnittdaten, Universität Leipzig, August 2010 (PDF, 2,25 MB)
Muth, Cornelia (Hrsg.): Dann kann man das ja auch mal so lösen! — Auswertungsinterviews mit Kindern und Jugendlichen nach Trainings zur Gewaltfreien Kommunikation, ISBN 978-3-8382-0120-7, 140 S., Paperback, 24,90 EUR
Riemer, Donna (2009)
Title: Creating Sanctuary: “Reducing Violence in a Maximum Security Forensic Psychiatric Hospital Unit” In IAFN “On The Edge” Spring 2009.
Riemer, D. and Corwith, C. (2007)
Application of core strategies: reducing seclusion & restraint use. On The Edge. The official news letter of the International Association of Forensic Nurses. Volume 13. Number 3, 7-10. Fall 2007 (Search in pdf for Donna Riemer
Danielsen, G. (2005).
Meeting Human Needs, Preventing Violence: Applying Human Needs Theory to the Conflict in Sri Lanka. Course Essay, Buenos Aires, Universidad del Salvador: 21.
ALL references to this paper should be referred to G. Danielsen ( beforehand, since some quotations in the paper have not yet been authorized by the person quoted.
Costetti, Vilma(1998—1999)
Nonviolent Communication Experimental Project in Primary Schools (PDF 143K)
The purpose of this work is to introduce and discuss the results of an international project which has taken place, among many others, in three schools near Reggio Emilia, Italy.The experiment has involved schools in Italy, Serbia, the Palestinian Authority and Israel; the aim was to improve the relationships among individuals within the schools, through the application of the Nonviolent Communication Model created by Professor Marshall B. Rosenberg.This work will not explore the international context of the project, rather it will try to determine whether the application (teaching and learning) of the Nonviolent Communication Model has actually modified and improved communication patterns within the Italian schools and if so, to what extent.
Savic, Nada Ignjatovic (1996)
MUTUAL EDUCATION: GIRAFFE LANGUAGE IN KINDERGARTENS AND SCHOOLS. The report on the realisation of the Project October 1995 – June 1996 In the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Institute of Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy Belgrade University